The Soma Theertham and The Surya Theertham created by the Sun and the Moon are of great significance here. It is believed that the Soma Kundam and Surya Kundam referred to in Silappathihaaram refer to these tanks. Vilvam and Konrai are the other Sthala vrikshams here. The goddess here has a separate temple to herself, and is known as Brahma Vidayambigai, the goddess of knowledge. Just outside her sanctum is the shrine to Budhan or Angarakan, the graham known to preside over knowledge. This temple Siva also known Venkatar, and his consert known as Veiyanaiya thol Umai, Panmoitha inmozhiyaal, Brahma Vidya Nayagi.
Inscriptions: Inscriptions from the time of Aditya Chola I (870-907), Raja Raja I (10th - 11th cent) & his descendants speaking of endowments made by the Chola rulers to this temple are found here. Vikrama Cholan built the Vikramacholan Tirumandapam (1118-1135). The present structures of the temple as well as the beautiful bronze images in this temple are a contribution of the Great Chola emperor Raja Raja Chola I. Some of these bronzes were recovered in treasure troves unearthed here. The Ardhanareeswarar and Chandeswarar bronzes are now housed in the Chennai Museum. Natarajar, Somaskandar, Devi, Bhoga Sakthi are housed in the temple, while images of Subramanyar, Rishabhavahanadevar, Bhikshatanar, Kalyanasundarar, Kannappar and others are housed in the Thanjavur Art Gallery.
Speciality: Appar, Sambandhar, Sunarar were sung hymns in awe in this temple. Indiran, Airavatam, Budhan, Sun God Sooriyan and Moon God Chandiran are said to have worshipped God Shiva here.
This temple is also known as Aadi Chidambaram, Natarajar's dance here is known as Hasti Natanam. This Shivasthalam is one of the 6 most sacred places on the banks of river Cauvery which is par with the temple at Varanasi. The other 5 shivasthalams are Tiruvaiyaru, Chaayaavanam, Mayiladuthurai, Tiruvidaimarudur and Tiruvanchiam.
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